Meet Green, an orangutan and victim of human impact.

Meet Green, an orangutan and victim of human impact. Follow the devastating journey as her home is destroyed by logging, clearing for palm oil plantations, and the choking haze of rainforest fires. Hauntingly poetic and without narration, the film creatively depicts the effects of consumerism on tropical rainforests as we are faced with our personal accountability in the loss of the world’s treasures.

“Green” is about the rainforest of Indonesia.  The film has no narration, it is thus accessible to all nationalities. It was produced  independently by Patrick Rouxel and is free of all commercial or political attachment.

The producers are happy for “Green” to be shared as widely as possibly. If you can – please do so.  It is very important.

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London Conference on the Illegal Wildlife Trade 2014

London Conference on Illegal Wildlife Trade

On the 12th and 13th February, 2014, forty-six countries participated in the London Conference on the Illegal Wildlife Trade 2014. The result was a signed declaration to tackle the illegal wildlife trade that is annually killing many thousands of elephant, rhino and other endangered species.

For those who have yet to see it – click here for the  London declaration

I’ll leave it to you to draw your own conclusions!


David Cameron to rip up green regulations

English countryside

This just about sums up the disgraceful tactics of David Cameron and his cronies.  The British Government has yet again put corporate greed before environmental concerns.

David Cameron to rip up green regulations

Prime minister says plans to scrap or amend more than 3,000 regulations will save businesses £850m a year
David Cameron will on Monday boast of tearing up 80,000 pages of environmental protections and building guidelines as part of a new push to build more houses and cut costs for businesses.
In a speech to small firms, the prime minister will claim that he is leading the first government in decades to have slashed more needless regulation than it introduced.
Among the regulations to be watered down will be protections for hedgerows and rules about how businesses dispose of waste, despite Cameron’s claims to lead the greenest government ever.
Addressing the Federation of Small Businesses conference, Cameron will argue that the new rules will make it “vastly cheaper” for businesses to comply with their environmental obligations.
Read the full article here at The Guardian

13th November 2013 – A Fateful Day for the Rainforests

Up to 90 per cent Of Global Deforestation is Due to Organized Crime


Tomorrow, Wednesday, 13th of November 2013, is of utmost importance for the tropical rainforests. On this day, the Committee of Permanent Representatives of the EU will meet in Brussels to discuss Europe’s future biofuel policy. European laws stipulate that biofuels made from plant oil are blended with fossil fuels. At present, 1.9 million tons of palm oil are mixed with diesel in the EU every year. 7,000 square kilometers of tropical rainforest have been converted into huge industrial monoculture plantations to produce the palm oil.

Please participate in the campaign by sending a protest email to the UK representation to the EU, Mrs. Shan Morgan:

Dear Minister,
Please abolish the blending of palm oil with diesel in the EU. The plantations needed to produce the palm oil threaten rainforests and the habitat of endangered orangutans.
Palm oil does not belong in fuel tanks!

To: Shan Morgan, UK Representation to the EU
Telephone: +32 (0)2 287 8211

Via Rainforest Rescue 12th November, 2013

Fast Fact Attack: Endangered Species No. 61 – The Sumatran Tiger

Sumatran tiger in jungle

Image: Creative Commons

From the eyes on its head to the whiskers on its face, there is not a single bit of the tiger that does not promise a cure for something.  Or, so decree the Oracles of Chinese traditional medicine.  And, if the Chinese are not boiling the tiger, grinding its bones into powder or making soup of it, others are selling it on the black market for as much as twenty thousand dollars per animal.  Live beasts are good, but dead pose little problem. And, of course, there is always a little bit of sport involved, too.  Then there are the land robbers, committing large scale pillage and rape.  They have logged, cleared, burnt, converted, planted and settled.  And, they show no signs of easing up until they have fully exploited the Sumatran tiger’s habitat.  The situation, by the admittance of Indonesian forestry officials, is now way out of control.  We are, in case you haven’t already guessed, back in Sumatra;  an island where they seem very practised at forcing species towards extinction.

Sumatran tigers can be distinguished by their thinner stripes.  Male Sumatrans have long fur around their faces, giving them a maned appearance.  They are smaller than other subspecies, with an average male weighing about two hundred and sixty-five pounds. Females are less heavy at about two hundred pounds.  Males grow up to eight feet in length, and females, a slightly shorter seven feet.

Tigers kill swiftly and painlessly.  A tiger will ambush its prey from behind and administer one fatal bite to the neck.  The spinal cord will break and death is almost always instantaneous.  They will then drag their prey out of sight.  They can eat up to forty pounds at a time, and will save what they don’t eat for later.  They are spectacular swimmers and have been known to chase their prey into water to gain an advantage. They live in dens and caves, and sometimes tree hollows;  they are mostly nocturnal and invariably solitary.

There is no specific breeding season for tigers, but mating often takes place between November and April, following which there is a gestation period of about three and a half months.  Three or four cubs will be born in a cave, a rocky crevice, or in dense vegetation. For the first few days their eyes and ears will remain closed.  The father of the cubs will not be involved in raising them.  They will stay within the confines of the den until they reach eight weeks.  At the age of six months they will begin their lessons in killing prey. However, their first lone kill will not be until they are about eighteen months old.  Cubs normally stay with their mothers until they are two or three years of age.  The juvenile mortality is high, however, and sadly, almost half of all cubs do not survive beyond the age of two.

The Sumatran tiger is the smallest of the five tiger subspecies.  It has lived exclusively, for over a million years, in the once extensive moist tropical jungles of the island of Sumatra, Indonesia.

Although tigers have been killed as a result of human conflict, the most significant numbers of killings have been for financial gain.  Poaching for trade is responsible for over 78% of estimated Sumatran tiger deaths, consisting of at least 40 animals per year.  There is no evidence that this trade is declining.

Almost sixty-seven thousand square kilometres of forest was lost between 1985 and 1997.  Most of that was lowland forest, the preferred habitat of the Sumatran tiger.  Since then, the annual rate of deforestation has increased dramatically.

If these illegal activities are not stamped out soon, or at least brought under control, there will be no future for the Sumatran tiger.

Montane and peat forests, lowlands, swamps and rivers.
The Indonesian island of Sumatra.
What they eat
Young rhinos, various pigs and members of the deer family.   It will also feast on smaller prey such as snakes, fish, monkeys and tapirs.
Habitat loss, illegal logging, depletion of prey base, human conflict and poaching.
Status: Critically Endangered
The Sumatran tiger  (Panthera tigris sumatrae)  is listed on the IUCN List of Threatened Species as Critically Endangered.  Most wild tigers live in the various National Parks of Sumatra.    Others, about 20% of the overall population, live in unprotected areas.  However, the square acreage of these supposedly protected National Parks is constantly dwindling due to illegal agriculture. The growing of coffee has become a major concern.  This issue, and others, can only be addressed by a) the law being strictly enforced – which it most certainly is not at the moment, and b) making the penalties far more severe that they are.

It is thought three hundred of the species may still survive in Sumatra in the wild. There are roughly the same amount kept in zoos.  “The European breeding programme and the Global Management Species Programme for Sumatran tigers are both coordinated by ZSL London Zoo – where ZSL’s specialists are responsible for ensuring a healthy and diverse population of tigers in zoos around the world.” [1]
There are various international organisations and trusts who are trying to help the Sumatran tiger, but unless something is done to halt the destruction of the forests soon, the Sumatran tiger will go the way of the Javan and Balinese tigers.  Both of which are now extinct.

“Man, when perfected, is the best of animals, but when separated from law and justice, he is the worst of all”

Fast Fact Attack: Endangered Species No. 60 – The Tasmanian Devil

Tasmanian devil growling

Image credit: Wikimedia Commons

Most endangered species are beset by habitat destruction or hunting, or both.  Not these little chaps.  They are all falling fast because of a rare, and invariably fatal, form of cancer.

Originally thought to be caused by a virus, it is now recognised to be an extremely rare contagious cancer.  It is highly unpleasant and starts by attacking the facial features. Lesions appear which develop into tumours. As the tumours spread, the animal is eventually left unable to eat.  It grows weaker as starvation sets in.  Once the disease has taken hold, it takes about three to six months for the animal to die.  The disease is transmitted through biting and mating.

Although known as devils, they are far from it.  But, if you have ever heard their cries in the night or the wild noises they make when devouring their prey, you could forgive the early European settlers for living in fear of them, and naming them as such.  Although, it is hard to forgive them for mercilessly hunting and trapping them to almost the point of extinction.  Luckily for the devils, they became protected by law in 1941 and the species made a comeback.

The largest surviving carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil is short and stocky, with a head that looks too large for its body.  The large head houses exceptionally powerful jaws, strong enough to crush bones and metal traps.  Research shows the Tasmanian devil’s large head and neck enable it to generate one of the strongest bites per unit body mass of any land predator.  Its forelegs are slightly longer than its hind legs, allowing it to reach speeds of up to eight miles per hour.  It has predominantly black fur with white markings on the chest and rump.  Some adults, though not many, do not have these markings.  They all have long whiskers for locating prey in the dark and for detecting the presence of other devils when feeding.  And, they all have long claws for digging dens and excavating food.  Males are usually larger than females and can weigh up to twenty-six pounds.  They can grow up to two feet six inches at the shoulder.  Their tails act as a counterbalance when they are running.  The tail is also where they store fat. A thin tail would indicate an unhealthy devil.

They are active during the day, and can sometimes be found basking in the warmth of the sun.  They are, however, nocturnal hunters. They can also climb trees and swim.  Although not the fleetest of runners, they have a great deal of stamina and can lumber along for up to an hour, non-stop.  When opening their jaws wide, they are often expressing fear. This could easily be misinterpreted as a sign of aggression. But, other devils certainly know better.  Instead of any growls or snarls, they have this peculiar habit of sneezing sharply when challenging one another to a fight.

The Tasmanian Devil is promiscuous and breeds once a year in March.  Gestation lasts twenty-one days.  After which, twenty or thirty tiny, tiny babies  (joeys)  will be born. Therein lies a problem.  Mothers only have four teats, so it gets quite competitive in the pouch, and, sadly, only a handful ever survive.  At about four months, infants will start to introduce themselves to the world.  At six months, they should be fully weaned.

All habitats.
Tasmania  –  Australia
What they eat
Carnivores and mainly scavengers, they will feed on whatever is available.   And, they eat every scrap  –  fur, bones and all.
Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) is the main threat to Tasmanian devils.  Roadkills, dog kills and persecution also occur.
Status: Endangered
The Tasmanian devil is listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species  as Endangered.   The population has been reduced by more than 80% since the 1990s. The sole reason for this decline is an invariably fatal infectious cancer, now known as Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD).  Much is being done to overcome this horrific disease.  Research is currently being carried out to find a possible cure.  Pilot programmes have been initiated whereby zoos in America, San Diego Zoo Global and Albuquerque Biopark, and three zoos in New Zealand have been selected to receive Tasmanian devils in order to raise awareness of their plight.  And, following quarantine procedures, some are being placed in a captive breeding programmes to ensure the survival of the species.
More information can be found at Save the Tasmanian Devil 

“The fate of animals is of greater importance to me than the fear of appearing ridiculous; it is indissolubly connected with the fate of men”
Emile Zola

Fast Fact Attack: Endangered Species No. 58 – The Zanzibar Red Colobus Monkey

Red colobus and baby by David Edric

Photographer: David Edric

Visualise someone leaping upwards fifty feet into the air carrying a twenty-five pound weight.  That is the equivalent of a female Zanzibar red colobus monkey travelling upwards with her clinging baby.  These colourful and friendly primates are Old World semi-brachiators, moving through the trees with a combination of leaping and brachiation. They are also quadrupedal, and can scamper on all fours across the top of the branches.  Above all, they are very athletic.  And, they are very endangered.

Zanzibar red colobus have pale-grey undersides with reddish-brown on the head and lower back.  They wear a mantle of black across the shoulders extending down the arms as a stripe.  They have black faces with white chins and foreheads.  Their legs have darker grey patches and their tails are brown.  Both male and female share these colours.  They are also very similar in size.

They do, however, have two notable features which single them out from other primates. Firstly, their tails are used as a balancing tool, whereas in other species the tail is used as an additional limb to aid forward movement.  Secondly, they lack opposable thumbs (colobus, is derived from the Greek word ekolobóse, meaning cut short).  Instead, they have four very long fingers which wrap around the branches enabling them to swing through the canopy with consummate ease.  On average, they weigh just under six kilos for males and five and a half kilos for females.  The mean length is twenty-two inches. Their tails are almost two feet long.

Within groups there is always a dominant male, determined by levels of aggression.  The hierarchy dictates the higher members of the group receive a larger distribution of food, social activities such as grooming, and females.  Groups can consist of as many as eighty individuals, though some are much less.  Females are usually more numerous within the groups.

There is no specific breeding season for the Zanzibar red colobus.  They mate throughout the year, but the inter-birth interval can be up to three years or more.  When the female falls pregnant, the gestation period lasts between five and six months, after which only one baby will be born.  The babies are born altricial and will be nursed for about eighteen months if female, and three to four years if male  (often males continue to nurse until they reach maturity).

The red colobus has a somewhat unusual predator in the chimpanzee.  Chimpanzees occasionally form large hunting parties and go on a killing spree for a few weeks.  They seem particularly fond of the red colobus.  When the marauding monkeys descend upon them, the red colobus males form a defence group, while the females collect their offspring ready to flee.  Sadly, the chimps manage to kill quite a lot of their fellow primates when on these missions and have been credited with contributing to the declining numbers.  The purpose is not solely to feed themselves, but also to acquire a nutritionally valuable item of trade.  With it, the chimpanzees are also able to show off their prowess to other males and their dependability to females.

Gallery forest, scrub forest growing on coral rag and mangrove swamps.
Endemic to Zanzibar  –  An island off the coast of (and part of) Tanzania,  East Africa
What they eat
Leaves, leaf buds, flowers and unripe fruit. On the ground, they eat charcoal to aid their digestive system.
Habitat destruction by way of logging, charcoal production, agricultural clearance and bush-burning.   They are sometimes shot for food, sport or as crop  pests by the locals, though these practice are now in decline and tourism is recognised as a valuable option. Illegal pet traders target the babies and will kill those around it who try to protect it. This can be a lot of monkeys.  Deaths on the roads happen from time to time.  Last of all, they fall prey to chimpanzees.  Those adorable little monkeys will eat meat, if given the chance, and are said to be responsible for killing up to one hundred red colobus every year.
Status: Endangered
The Zanzibar red colobus is listed on the  IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.   It is also listed as Class A under the African Convention, and protected under  Appendix I of CITES.   It is thought less than twelve hundred Zanzibar red colobus survive  in the wild.   Conservation funding has been provided by the WWF in the past, but little seems to have come of it.   In fact, there does not seem to be very much going on at all.   Although, awareness is being raised and farmers are now compensated by the government for damages to crops.  The majority of Zanzibar colobus live in the Jozani Chwaka Bay National Park

“All things share the same breath – the beast, the tree, the man. The air shares its spirit with all the life it supports” Chief Seattle

Fast Fact Attack: Endangered Species No. 57 – The Giant Otter

two otters by the river

Photograph from the Karanambu Trust

For decades these adorable otters were hunted for their fine silky pelt. Now, they are suffering from devastating habitat loss. Giant Otters are large, diurnal, extremely active, playful, sociable and very noisy. Despite their evil-looking eyes, they can be very friendly towards human beings; which clearly hasn’t protected them too well.

Giant otters are semi-aquatic land mammals who depend upon both land and water to survive. They can grow to six feet in length and weigh up to seventy-five pounds, making them the largest living otter, next to the sea otter. They have coats of dense velvety fur made up of short, waterproof guard hairs with some under fur. The colour ranges from reddish-brown to grey with irregular chest markings in a pale creamy colour. Some lack these markings. They have short, stubby legs with huge webbed feet. They have broad heads and stocky necks. The tail is dorsoventrally flattened and broad and powerful at the base. Highly adapted for swimming and diving, their sensitive whiskers aid prey location in unclear waters and their ears and nostrils close when entering the water.

They are capable of travelling long distances overland between bodies of water. They build camp sites on the river banks. Vegetation is pounded and trampled into the ground over an area of thirty by twenty feet. Latrines are dug around the perimeter. They maintain several of these camp sites in various locations. The camp sites are the sort of social club where they all gather to groom, play and relax. Dens are dug near the sites for sleeping and rearing cubs. Between the camp site and the dens the otters will have established a home territory which they will defend very aggressively against intruders.

They live in groups of up to ten individuals consisting of an adult pair (they are monogamous) and various generations of offspring.

The gestation period for a giant otter is between sixty-five and seventy days. Females will give birth to up to six cubs between August and early October. The young are altricial, meaning they are born helpless and need a lot of parental care. After four weeks the cub’s eyes will open and they will follow the mother around. After ten weeks the cubs will be able to eat fish, but will still depend on the mother’s milk until they reach at least sixteen or seventeen weeks. They grow quickly, and at ten months it is difficult to tell the cub from the adult. Unfortunately, there is a high juvenile mortality.

The estimated lifespan of a giant otter, in the wild, is ten to thirteen years.

Freshwater rivers, swamps, creeks and streams.
Scattered populations exist throughout the rainforests of South America.
What they eat
Fish, crustaceans and snakes, with the odd caiman now and then.  One giant otter will normally consume up to nine pounds of seafood in a day.
Up until the 1970s, this sleek river mammal was ruthlessly hunted for its silky pelt.   They are friendly creatures by nature, and will approach humans without fear.  This made them easy targets for ruthless, greedy hunters, and the population became decimated. Poaching still continues today on a lesser scale.  But, now there is an even greater threat; that of habitat loss.  Heavily degraded by logging, mining, exploitation of fossil fuels and hydroelectric power, river and land pollution, and over-fishing, their habitat is disappearing rapidly.  And, in some areas, cubs are being taken illegally and sold as pets. They need specialist care, which they are very unlikely to receive, and most will die through lack of it.  They have few natural predators.  Other threats include conflict with fishermen and diseases transmitted by domestic animals.
Status: Endangered
The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis ) is listed on the  IUCN Red List of Threatened Species  as Endangered.  It is also listed under  CITES Status: Appendix 1.   Within the next three otter generations, the IUCN predict their numbers will be reduced by half due to accelerating habitat destruction.  No-one knows exactly how many are left in the wild, but an estimation of one to five thousand individuals has been put forward.   There some kept in zoos around the world.   Efforts are being made to help the giant otter by way of education, research, awareness-raising programmes and management of protected areas.

“All that is needed for the forces of evil to triumph is for good men to do nothing”
Edmund Burke

Fast Fact Attack: Endangered Species No. 54 – The Grey-shanked Douc Langur

Grey-shanked douc langur

Image: Art G via Creative Commons

Mankind has done irreparable damage to these poor langurs.  Their numbers were reduced dramatically during the Vietnam War when the their habitat was heavily bombed and sprayed with defoliants like Agent Orange.  On top of that, soldiers used these harmless creatures for target practice (they sit still in the branches – they do not run away – they think they are hiding). Today, they are hunted for the pet trade, food and medicine. And, as if that were not enough, their habitat has been horribly decimated over recent years.

Even more recently, in 2012, two grey-shanked douc langurs were brutally tortured and killed, for fun, and a series of images of these disturbing and horrific actions were posted on the Facebook page of Vietnamese soldier, Nguyen Van Quang.  One was a pregnant female.  [1]  This is humanity at its absolute lowest.  And, the deed has gone virtually unpunished.  Vietnam should hold its head in shame.

These acts of killing are not isolated.  Shortly afterwards, a man identified as Bui Van Ngay was arrested for killing eighteen langurs in Vietnam’s Bu Gia Map National Park.

Only man is responsible for the decline of this species.  Their numbers have now plunged to less than seven hundred individuals.

Grey-shanked douc langurs have light grey coats with pale undersides.  They have black hands and black feet, and the lower legs are dark grey.  They have a rusty-red  ‘bib’ around the neck and a white throat with long white whiskers on the chin.  Their faces are pale orange. They weigh between eighteen and twenty-four pounds  (male to female) and their bodies and tails grow to roughly the same length of twenty-nine inches.

They are diurnal and arboreal.  They move by leaping and brachiating through the trees. They live in groups of four to fifteen individuals (these numbers were once much higher) where the males are the dominant members.  They communicate by touch, sound and visual signs.

The breeding season runs from August to December.  There is a gestation period of up to one hundred and ninety days, and births will occur between January and August.  One baby will be born weighing, at most, a mere seven hundred and twenty grammes.

Evergreen and semi-evergreen primary rainforests.
Central Highlands of Vietnam
What they eat
Primarily folivorous, although plant buds, fruits that haven’t ripened, seeds and flowers are also eaten.  They don’t drink water unless they are on the ground, otherwise they get all the water they need from the food that is consumed.
Man is the greatest predator of the species. Through logging and agricultural conversion man has all but destroyed the habitat of the grey-shanked douc langur.   He has callously and unremittingly hunted this little monkey for food and traditional medicine.   Upon seeing humans,  grey-shanked douc langurs are known to hide unmoving in the trees instead of  beating a hasty retreat.   This has made them an easy target for cold-blooded, grasping hunters.
Status:  Critically Endangered
The grey-shanked douc langur is listed on the  IUCN Red List of Threatened Species  as critically endangered.  It is one of “The World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates.”   This species is listed in CITES Appendix I, and listed on Appendix 1B of Decree 32 (2006) in Viet Nam.  The grey-shanked douc langurs live primarily in protected areas, but the law enforcers are neglectful, leaving the species vulnerable.  Currently, the population is estimated to be less than seven hundred individuals.   Global response to the douc’s dilemma has been overwhelming. From the World Wild Life Fund to the Frankfurt Zoological Society and over to Vietnam itself, much is now being done to save this species. Tragic as the event may have been, not only did the torture and killings of the grey-shanked douc langurs in Vietnam spark universal outrage, it also drew the everyday world’s attention to the plight of this endearing little primate. So now, there is much support all round.

“Of all the animals, man is the only one that is cruel. He is the only one that inflicts pain for the pleasure of doing it”
Mark Twain

Fast Fact Attack: Endangered Species No. 53 – The Hirola Antelope

Hirola, in the wild, looking at camera

Photographer: Unknown

Hirola is the Somali name for this antelope. Originally it was known as Hunter’s antelope following it’s discovery in 1887 by big game hunter, H. C. V. Hunter.  It is highly recognisable by its facial appearance.  Not only does it look as though it is wearing spectacles with white frames, it also has the distinction of having large pre-orbital glands which give the impression of having two sets of eyes.

Like all antelope, the hirola belongs to the family Bovidae, which includes cattle, bison, buffalo, goats and sheep.  And also, like most antelope, it has been mercilessly hunted. Hunting has been banned in Kenya since 1997, but the butchery continues.

Despite the ban, there has been a dramatic drop in population since the eighties. Recorded then as being fourteen thousand strong, there are now only five hundred hirola left in the wild. In Somalia they have ceased to exist altogether.

Resembling a cross between an impala and a hartebeest, the hirola can reach a height of forty-nine inches at the shoulder, and weigh up to two hundred and fifty pounds.  Head to tail, they can measure almost six feet and six inches.  Both sexes have long, thin, curved horns; growing to twenty-eight inches and having bold, dark rings around them.  The overall body colour is a sort of pale buff, with darker legs. There is a white band across the eyes.  The tail is white with a black and white tip.

They feed early morning and early evening, and can survive well without water for long periods of time.  Herds range from fifteen to forty individuals, but occasionally this number can be much larger.

There exists a system whereby dominant, polygamous males defend a selected harem of seven to eight females and their young.  The breeding season is March to April, followed by a gestation period of seven to eight months.  Females leave the herd to birth their calves and continue to stay away for a further two weeks.  Single calves are born in October to November and will be able to stand almost immediately.  Unfortunately, both mothers and calves become vulnerable to predators during this time.

Semi-arid, grassy plains and lush savannah grassland, amidst dry acacia scrub and coastal forests.
Kenya  (close to the Somalia border)
What they eat
Freshly sprouting, short grasses  (they tend to avoid longer grasses)  and sometimes forbs.
Habitat loss, disease, drought, and competition with livestock are all considerable threats to the hirola.  Natural predators are plentiful too;  lion, hunting dogs and cheetah roam freely.   And, hyenas and eagles are known to prey upon the newborns before mother and baby have the chance to safely rejoin the herd.  Then, as always, there is the human predator. Poachers (hunters) are usually local herdsmen, tourists or military personnel.
Status: Critically Endangered
There are an estimated five hundred hirola antelope  (Beatragus hunteri)  left in the wild. The species is listed on the  IUCN Red List of Threatened Species  as Critically Endangered.  The hirola share the land with the pastoral Abdullah Clan of Somalian origin. These peoples have been working with the various non-profit conservation agencies to assist in the protection of the hirola.  Indeed, they are crucial to the project.  Both funding and knowledge have been provided and the project is working well.  [1]  If the issue of hunting by other parties could be addressed successfully, this species may have a chance of survival.

“You must be the change you want to see in the world”
Mahatma Gandhi