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“What is man without the beasts? If all the beasts were gone, man would die from a great loneliness of the spirit. For whatever happens to the beasts, soon happens to man. All things are connected”
Known as the ‘fire tiger’ (Seua fai) in certain parts of Thailand, this enigmatic forest dweller is surrounded by legend. Thai people believe that burning the Asiatic golden cat’s pelage will drive tigers away and that cooking and eating the whole cat will protect against tiger attacks. Those of the peaceful and nature-loving Karen tribe, the largest of the major tribes of northern Thailand, maintain a single hair will do the same job, but how they come by this one hair is not disclosed. The Asiatic cat is also believed, by most indigenous peoples, to be ferocious. Though few signs of this have been demonstrated in captivity.
The range of the golden cat covers parts of some of the most rapidly developing countries in the world. Their habitat is being destroyed at a terrifying rate to accomodate man, who is also managing to destroy the cat’s prey at the same time. Added to that, they are hunted for their beautiful pelts and body parts – no surprise there then! Evidence of this appeared in four separate markets in Myanmar between 1991 and 2006. Parts and skins from one hundred and ten individual cats were reported. These markets can still be found on the borders of China and Thailand, and are still trading in this very rare creature and other animals. The markets are well-attended by international buyers. The fact that the golden cat is fully protected in Myanmar does not seem to be helping it at all here.
The Asiatic golden cat is also known as the Asian golden cat and Temminck’s golden cat (named after the Dutch naturalist Coenraad Jacob Temminck. Temminck first described the related African golden cat in 1827). There are three subspecies of golden cat: C.t.dominicanorum – South China, C.t.temminck – Himalayas to Sumatra and C.t.tristis – Southwest China Highlands.
Asiatic golden cats are quite solid creatures and tend to resemble the domestic cat in all but size. They typically weigh about twenty-five to thirty-five pounds and can reach up to forty-one inches in body length. Males are usually larger than females.
They have a dense, coarse coat ranging in colour from dark-orange to brown, dark-brown to cinnamon, and dark-grey to black. Melanistic, panther-like morphs also exist. Coats are sometimes spotted or have rosettes, or have vague stripes. Black and white lines run along the side of the face.
These elusive Asiatic golden cats were once thought to be mainly nocturnal, but studies now reveal they are diurnal and crepuscular. They can climb trees if needs be, though they do prefer to be at ground level. Their vocalisations, like their appearance, again resemble the domestic cat, with purring, meowing, growling, spitting and hissing.
Most of the information on reproduction in golden cats is derived from observations of the species in captivity. There is apparently no specific breeding season for the golden cat, and if one litter is lost another will be produced within four months. After a gestation period of up to eighty days, the female will give birth to one to three kittens, each weighing about eight and a half ounces. The kittens will grow very quickly and have tripled their size by the age of eight weeks. Their coats are already patterned at birth, but their eyes will be closed for the first six to twelve days. Males play an active role in rearing their young. The kittens will be fully weaned at six months and fully mature at eighteen to twenty-four months, depending whether male or female.
Subtropical and tropical forest with rocky areas, bamboo forest, grasslands and shrub.
From the Himalayan foothills of Tibet into China, across to India and down through to Sumatra.
What they eat
Mainly rodents with some birds and reptiles. They are capable of bringing down much larger prey such as small deer and buffalo calves.
Deforestation, loss of prey species, indiscriminate snaring, poaching for its fur and bones, poaching for the illegal wildlife trade, and human conflict.
Status: Near Threatened
The Asiatic golden cat (Pardofelis temminckii) is listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as Near Threatened (likely to become endangered in the near future). It is also listed under CITES Appendix 1 (as Catopuma temminckii).
The species is fully protected over most of its range with the exception of Lao People’s Democratic Republic where hunting is regulated, and Bhutan where it is only protected in certain areas.
In Myanmar, pelts have been found in various markets catering for international buyers. The general consensus is that CITES laws are not adequately enforced here.
It is not known how many Asiatic golden cats still exist in the wild, but it is thought their numbers are declining rapidly. A limited number of individuals are kept in zoos around the world. Captive breeding programs exist in some.
Malaysia rescues rare golden cat from pot (2010)
Sensational offspring of Asiatic golden cats, Allwetter Zoo – Germany (May 2013)
Six cat species found in Eastern Plains Landscape (WWF February 2013)
“It should not be believed that all beings exist for the sake of the existence of man. On the contrary, all the other beings too have been intended for their own sakes and not for the sake of anything else”
What is it about bears! You would think they would be revered on account of their size alone. And, in the case of this bear, its name. After all, Inti or Apu-punchau, the Inca Sun God was worshipped by so many for so long. But, these bears have not been afforded the same courtesy. Instead these poor creatures are persecuted beyond belief. Just like their cousins, the Asiatic black bears, they are trapped and incarcerated for their fur, bile and gall bladders. Traditional Chinese Medicine is claiming their body parts and the paws of the bear are sold as a delicacy in restaurants. Their habitat is being destroyed at an alarming rate and, on top of all that, the ill-informed seem to think bear cubs make good pets (after killing the mother, that is). All-in-all, a sad indictment of man’s behaviour toward animals.
Although considered a large animal, Malayan sun bears are the smallest of all bear species, with, incidentally, the largest canines. Reaching a maximum length (males) of almost four and a half feet, they can weigh up to one hundred and forty-four pounds. Males tend to be a lot larger than females.
Malayan sun bears (or honey bears as they are sometimes known) have short, smooth, water-repellent, dark-brown to black fur, with an orangey/yellow bow-shaped mark on their chests. The same colour of fur surrounds the muzzle and the eyes. The skin around the neck is loose, allowing the bear to twist and bite its attacker when necessary. They have strong paws with hairless soles and long curved claws. Their snouts are flexible and they have extraordinarily long tongues – an adaptation for gathering termites from the nests and mounds. Sun bears have very poor eyesight, but a keen sense of smell, which helps them to detect food. They are good climbers and can often be found resting in trees.
Despite being the smallest of the species, sun bears can be quite aggressive, and there have been recorded unprovoked attacks. Sun bears have been observed living together whilst raising cubs, but, usually they are solitary and the mother and cubs are the only ones to stay together.
Living in a tropical climate, with an all-year-round supply of food, the need to hibernate does not arise.
There is no specific breeding season. The gestation period following mating is roughly ninety-six days. One to three tiny, altricial (furless, eyes closed and dependent upon the parent) cubs will be born. The cubs will continue to nurse for about eighteen months. Cubs remain with their mothers until fully grown and are able to fend for themselves. Female bears use holes inside large, old hollow trees to birth the babies.
Tropical evergreen rainforest including swamps and limestone/karst hills, and lower montane forest.
Bangladesh, Brunei, Darussalam, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam.
What they eat
Fruit (especially figs) and berries, insects, small vertebrates, eggs, honey and termites. They use their very long tongues to access the mounds and nests of termites, the hives of bees and tree holes with insects.
In most countries: Habitat loss due to plantation development, unsustainable logging practices, illegal logging both within and outside protected areas. Commercial poaching of bears for the wildlife trade is a huge threat. Other reasons for killing bears include: Crop damage, capture of cubs for pets (the mother being killed in the process) and commercial hunting.
On the islands of Sumatra and Borneo: Large-scale conversion of forest to oil palm plantations.
In Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Viet Nam: Sun bears are commonly poached for their gall bladders and paws; the former is used as a Traditional Chinese Medicine, and the latter as an expensive delicacy.
In China and Viet Nam: Bile is milked from commercially farmed bears; however, although sun bears can be found on these farms, the majority of bears used in this practise are Asiatic black bears. Bears are routinely removed from the wild to replenish stock on these small farms.
The Malayan sun bear has few natural predators.
The Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) is listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as Vulnerable (considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild). It has been listed on CITES Appendix I since 1979.
Killing bears is illegal in all range countries. However, little enforcement of these laws occurs. It has to be said, the areas which need patrolling are vast, making this an overwhelming task for rangers. But, given exploitation for body parts is expected to continue, these bears will be gone if something effective is not done soon. .
In Thailand alone, it is estimated that commercial poaching of sun bears has reduced their numbers by 50% over the last twenty years.
Bornean Sun Bear Conservation Centre – Hope at Last For Borneo
Baby bear found strapped to pole in northern Ontario
This article is not about sun bears, it is about a baby bear tormented by children in Canada. It happened in 2012. What is noteworthy is the appalling stance the comments took towards the bears, and the unacceptable ‘kids will be kids’ attitude conveyed by those who clearly thought this behaviour was acceptable. No wonder so many abuse animals if this is the sort of message children are receiving in a supposedly civilised western country. Though, I very much doubt this article reflects the good Canadian people in general.
“The more clearly we can focus our attention on the wonders and realities of the universe, the less taste we shall have for destruction”
Looking remarkably like a cross between a rhinoceros (to which it is related) and a huge prize boar wearing a saddle blanket, the Malayan tapir is yet another species suffering from habitat devastation. Once again, we bear witness to the terrible destruction caused by palm oil plantations.
These solitary, timid creatures are one of four species of tapir. The others can be found Central and South America. The Malayan tapir, as the name would suggest, is native to Asia.
Malayan tapirs are surprisingly large, weighing up to seven hundred pounds; roughly as much as a Shetland pony. But, far from being pony-like in its length, it can grow to as much as eight feet from head to tail. Of all the tapirs, the Malayan tapir is the largest by far. Oddly, females are usually larger than males.
Tapirs are close relatives of (surprisingly) horses and (not so surprisingly) rhinos. And, something you may not know, a group of tapirs is called a “candle”.
Malayan tapirs have long, flexible, prehensile trunks used extensively for grabbing leaves and plucking tasty fruit. But, this proboscis also has another important role; that of a snorkel, used when the tapir goes swimming and diving for food and cover.
Its sparse coat is a deep-dark-grey to black with a white ‘saddle’ running from the centre of its back to its tail, and white ears trims. The coat is made up of very coarse hair which covers extremely tough skin. The tough skin comes in handy for protection against the claws and jaws of predators, and for withstanding the rigours of crashing through thick understorey vegetation when on the run. It also has a very short stubby tail, small piggy-eyes and large ears. There are four toes on each fore foot and three toes on the hind ones.
It is said the disrupted colouration of the coat acts as camouflage, and predators most likely will mistake it for a large boulder when the animal is prone. This sounds a bit optimistic to me, but… let’s hope so!
Because tapirs are nocturnal and crepuscular (most active at dawn and dusk), the short-sightedness of the species is a bit of a drawback, especially when searching for food or avoiding predators. However, this is well-compensated for by the acute sense of smell they possess and the excellent hearing they enjoy.
Malayan tapirs are superb swimmers too, and will, by preference, live near water, where they will spend the majority of their time. They feed from the bottom of the rivers on aquatic plants, and are able to submerge themselves for several minutes before using their ‘snorkels’. Water also helps to cool them down and remove parasites, and allows refuge from predators.
But, don’t be fooled into thinking these gentle-looking creatures cannot and will not attack if necessary. When threatened, they will charge using their very dangerous teeth to defend themselves. Deaths of humans have been recorded in both the wild and in captivity. Well… I suppose at least one species is getting its own back!
The breeding season for tapirs typically occurs between April and June. A gestation period of up to three hundred and ninety-five days follows. After which, one single calf will be born weighing about fifteen pounds. Looking nothing like the mother in colour, the baby will have brown hair, white spots and white stripes. This colouring allows it to blend in with the variegated forest vegetation. Between the ages of four and seven months, the, now juvenile’s, coat will turn to the colours of an adult tapir. The young one will be weaned at six to eight months. By this time it will be almost fully grown. The mother will only produce a calf once every two years.
Primary and secondary tropical moist forests and lower montane forests.
Sumatra, Myanmar and Thailand.
What they eat
Young leaves, growing twigs and aquatic plants. And, seasonal fruits. They enjoy palm tree fruits as well as mango and fig. They also put a great deal of effort into finding salt licks.
Human activity: habitat conversion to palm oil plantations. illegal logging, deforestation for agricultural and flooding caused by dammed rivers for hydroelectric projects. Hunters seek out Malayan tapirs for food and sport. Young tapirs are also trafficked. Baby and adolescent tapirs can be worth as much as six thousand dollars on the black market. Some are known to have been traded through Indonesian zoos and some have gone to private collectors. Natural predators are the leopard and the tiger.
The Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus) is listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as Endangered. It is also protected under Cites Appendix 1. Remaining numbers are thought to be as few as fifteen hundred to two thousand and decreasing.
The species is protected against hunting in all locations, and, because of their pig-like appearance, tapir meat is taboo in Sumatra anyway, where most of the population is Muslim. Sadly, nothing is being done to protect its habitat. The Malayan tapir is, regrettably in the same position as all other tapirs – in danger of extinction. But, there is an upside; there are a number of tapirs in zoos around the world and captive breeding seems to be working.
Other names: Asian tapir, badak (Malaysia and Indonesia), som-set (Thailand).
“Compassion for animals is intimately connected with goodness of character; and it may be confidently asserted that he who is cruel to animals cannot be a good man”
Everyday, more elephants are captured for illegal logging operations. Forced to aid the destruction of their own natural habitat, they move around in chains hauling away huge trees, clearing the way for more palm oil plantations. With their habitat gone, the free herds are compelled to move towards human settlements in search of food and shelter. They have nowhere else to go. They have no choice other than to leave behind the remnants of their forests and head towards the villages. Those that do flee are often on the point of starvation. Unfortunately, on the move, they are inclined to do a great deal of damage. This has brought humans and elephants to the point of war in Asia.
Villagers are laying traps for elephants, tormenting and torturing them, and even killing them. But, it is hard to blame them sometimes. A moving elephant can, and does, trample crops, demolish homes and kill people. And it is happening a lot. But, that doesn’t mean the fault lies with the elephant either.
The blame for this appalling situation falls squarely on the shoulders of the greedy, callous and criminal plantation owners. Those who see little other than a cash crop. The West cannot get enough of palm oil, and there are few products that do not contain it. And, these insatiable pillagers of the forests intend to meet the demand regardless of the absolute devastation they are causing to the irreplaceable and magnificent rainforests and the dependent inhabitants.
As most of us are aware, elephants are not small. The average Asian adult male comes in at about five and a half tons. They grow up to nine feet at the shoulder and can be as long as twenty-one feet from trunk to tail (the tail being just under five feet long). Females tend to be smaller. The ears of the Asian elephant are much smaller than those of the African elephant and coincidentally resemble the shape of the India subcontinent.
In Asian elephants, unlike their African cousins, only the males have tusks. If any are found in females, they (the ‘tushes’) are barely visible. Tusks are, in fact, elongated incisors which continue to grow throughout the elephant’s life. They are used for eating, digging for water, debarking trees, social interactions and as weapons.
Elephants usually mate during the rainy season. After a gestation period of twenty-two months, a single calf will be born (twins are very rare). The calf will weigh about two hundred and fifty pounds at birth. When born, calves suckle through the mouth. At this point the trunk does not have enough developed muscle to be of any use. Several months will need to pass before it is able to gain full use of it. The bond between mother and calf is known to be strong, but others in the herd will help out with the infant’s care. Once males have reached adolescence, they will be pushed away from the group. Most will become part of bachelor groups until they reach full maturity and go it alone.
A wide variety of forests, grasslands and scrublands.
Asian elephants occur in isolated populations in thirteen range States in parts of India and South-east Asia, including Sumatra and Borneo.
What they eat
Grasses, roots, fruit, and bark – and in enormous quantities. One adult alone can get through up to 300 pounds of food in a day. They are also known to eat cultivated crops such as sugar cane and bananas.
Capture for domestic use; this has become a major problem for some populations and numbers have been reduced significantly. Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation are also huge threats. Poaching and conflict with humans is on the rise.
The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) is listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as Endangered. It is also protected under Cites Appendix 1. Estimates put the population, across all range States, as being between thirty-nine and fifty thousand in the wild, with a further thirteen thousand kept as working or former-working elephants. There are obvious difficulties in collecting this sort of data, so exact figures have never been published. What is certain, is that over half the elephants occur in India.
Various agencies and organisations are working towards reducing conflict between local communities and the elephants. This includes approaches to crop protection, community-based guarding methods to safely repel the onslaught of elephants and education and promotion of elephant conservation throughout Asia.
From the eyes on its head to the whiskers on its face, there is not a single bit of the tiger that does not promise a cure for something. Or, so decree the Oracles of Chinese traditional medicine. And, if the Chinese are not boiling the tiger, grinding its bones into powder or making soup of it, others are selling it on the black market for as much as twenty thousand dollars per animal. Live beasts are good, but dead pose little problem. And, of course, there is always a little bit of sport involved, too. Then there are the land robbers, committing large scale pillage and rape. They have logged, cleared, burnt, converted, planted and settled. And, they show no signs of easing up until they have fully exploited the Sumatran tiger’s habitat. The situation, by the admittance of Indonesian forestry officials, is now way out of control. We are, in case you haven’t already guessed, back in Sumatra; an island where they seem very practised at forcing species towards extinction.
Sumatran tigers can be distinguished by their thinner stripes. Male Sumatrans have long fur around their faces, giving them a maned appearance. They are smaller than other subspecies, with an average male weighing about two hundred and sixty-five pounds. Females are less heavy at about two hundred pounds. Males grow up to eight feet in length, and females, a slightly shorter seven feet.
Tigers kill swiftly and painlessly. A tiger will ambush its prey from behind and administer one fatal bite to the neck. The spinal cord will break and death is almost always instantaneous. They will then drag their prey out of sight. They can eat up to forty pounds at a time, and will save what they don’t eat for later. They are spectacular swimmers and have been known to chase their prey into water to gain an advantage. They live in dens and caves, and sometimes tree hollows; they are mostly nocturnal and invariably solitary.
There is no specific breeding season for tigers, but mating often takes place between November and April, following which there is a gestation period of about three and a half months. Three or four cubs will be born in a cave, a rocky crevice, or in dense vegetation. For the first few days their eyes and ears will remain closed. The father of the cubs will not be involved in raising them. They will stay within the confines of the den until they reach eight weeks. At the age of six months they will begin their lessons in killing prey. However, their first lone kill will not be until they are about eighteen months old. Cubs normally stay with their mothers until they are two or three years of age. The juvenile mortality is high, however, and sadly, almost half of all cubs do not survive beyond the age of two.
The Sumatran tiger is the smallest of the five tiger subspecies. It has lived exclusively, for over a million years, in the once extensive moist tropical jungles of the island of Sumatra, Indonesia.
Although tigers have been killed as a result of human conflict, the most significant numbers of killings have been for financial gain. Poaching for trade is responsible for over 78% of estimated Sumatran tiger deaths, consisting of at least 40 animals per year. There is no evidence that this trade is declining.
Almost sixty-seven thousand square kilometres of forest was lost between 1985 and 1997. Most of that was lowland forest, the preferred habitat of the Sumatran tiger. Since then, the annual rate of deforestation has increased dramatically.
If these illegal activities are not stamped out soon, or at least brought under control, there will be no future for the Sumatran tiger.
Montane and peat forests, lowlands, swamps and rivers.
The Indonesian island of Sumatra.
What they eat
Young rhinos, various pigs and members of the deer family. It will also feast on smaller prey such as snakes, fish, monkeys and tapirs.
Habitat loss, illegal logging, depletion of prey base, human conflict and poaching.
Status: Critically Endangered
The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is listed on the IUCN List of Threatened Species as Critically Endangered. Most wild tigers live in the various National Parks of Sumatra. Others, about 20% of the overall population, live in unprotected areas. However, the square acreage of these supposedly protected National Parks is constantly dwindling due to illegal agriculture. The growing of coffee has become a major concern. This issue, and others, can only be addressed by a) the law being strictly enforced – which it most certainly is not at the moment, and b) making the penalties far more severe that they are.
It is thought three hundred of the species may still survive in Sumatra in the wild. There are roughly the same amount kept in zoos. “The European breeding programme and the Global Management Species Programme for Sumatran tigers are both coordinated by ZSL London Zoo – where ZSL’s specialists are responsible for ensuring a healthy and diverse population of tigers in zoos around the world.” 
There are various international organisations and trusts who are trying to help the Sumatran tiger, but unless something is done to halt the destruction of the forests soon, the Sumatran tiger will go the way of the Javan and Balinese tigers. Both of which are now extinct.
“Man, when perfected, is the best of animals, but when separated from law and justice, he is the worst of all”
Why is somewhere so richly bio-diverse as Indonesia losing its wildlife at such an alarming rate? Why are the Sumatran tiger, the Javan and Sumatran rhino, and the Sumatran orangutan, all endangered? And, why was the Sumatran elephant moved from endangered to critically endangered, on the IUCN Red List, in 2012? Collectively, difficult questions to find the answers to, perhaps!
Well, no… not really. There is no mystery attached at all. It is not poaching, disease or the illegal pet trade, but palm oil which they have fallen victim to, and which has now become the principal threat to the survival of the Sumatran elephant. For goodness sakes people, stop buying palm oil-based products now. Palm oil is ‘liquid ivory'”  to the unscrupulous. Do not feed the greed. This elephant is rapidly losing its habitat, and dying off at a terrifying rate because of it.
For a full, up to date report on the destruction caused by palm oil plantations, click here. Trust me – it will both shock and disgust you.
The Sumatran elephant is a recognised subspecies of the Asian elephant, and native to the Indonesia island of Sumatra. These magnificent creatures can grow to between seven and ten feet at the shoulder. They weigh in at an incredible six and a half to eleven thousand pounds, and surprisingly can run up to twenty-seven miles per hour. They have leathery grey skin and smaller ears than African elephants. They also have an extra pair of ribs. Females tend to be smaller than males and often do not have tusks. Those that do, have them tucked safely away under the upper lip. That surely has to be a plus for the Sumatran elephant.
Elephants wallow a lot. This endearing habit is very important. It protects their skin from harmful insect bites and cools them down at the same time. They also migrate, following strict routes. The herd is led by the eldest elephant who is expected to remember its herd’s route from the previous trek. Migration takes place between the wet and dry seasons, when they can walk up to seven kilometres in a single night. Should they need to cross rivers, elephants are able to submerge themselves underwater and use their trunks as snorkels. On their travels, they communicate with each other using sounds produced by soft vibrations of the trunk. These sounds can be heard by other elephants up to five kilometres away.
There is no particular breeding season for elephants, but the rainy season seems quite popular. Females are ready to breed by the time they are ten years old. There is a gestation period of twenty-two months, after which a single calf will be born. Calves weigh about one hundred kilos and are normally taken care of by other females in the herd, as well as the mother. Infants stay with their mothers until they are five years old.
Who is responsible for the decline of the Sumatran elephant?
(An excerpt from the Rainforest Action Network factsheet on palm oil plantations)
“North American food and agribusiness companies purchase from, operate, and own many palm oil plantations in South-east Asia, making our corporations a powerful force in the palm oil market.
The largest privately owned company in the U.S., Cargill dominates the American palm oil market. They own five palm oil plantations in Indonesia and PNG and are the largest importer of palm oil into the U.S., sourcing from at least 26 producers and buying roughly 11 percent of Indonesia’s total oil palm output. A large and growing number of investigations have shown that Cargill’s palm oil is directly destroying forests, eliminating biodiversity and harming forest peoples.”
Companies such as Nestlé and Unilever are also heavily involved.
Sumatra – Indonesia.
What they eat
Green vegetation and fruit. The Sumatran elephant and can munch its way through two hundred kilos of food a day.
Mainly oil palm plantations, followed closely by timber plantations for pulp and paper production, and land clearance for agricultural use. Elephants have also been shot and poisoned by local farmers. Natural predators are few.
Status: Critically Endangered
The Sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus) is listed on the IUCN List of Threatened Species as Critically Endangered. There are an estimated two thousand of the species left in the wild. The World Wide Fund For Nature predicts that within 30 years this South-east Asian elephant could be extinct. The Sumatran elephant is protected under Indonesian law, though this has not been enforced efficiently in the past. This year, WWF have been working with partners in Sumatra to “prevent destruction of forest habitat and secure well-managed protected areas and wider forest landscapes connected by corridors”. The government of Indonesia has now passed a new law setting maximum boundaries land use. This has upset the plantation owners and their investors. “For example, the production target of 40 million tons of palm oil by 2020 is in jeopardy”. 
For a full, up to date report on the destruction caused by palm oil plantations, click here. (just in case you missed it at the beginning)
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