Fast Fact Attack: Endangered Species No. 27 – The Chinese Pangolin


Chinese Pangolin

Photo: Jason Chin

Description
Conservationists fear these endearing,  armour-plated little  ‘scaly anteaters’  may be overlooked because they are not quite as cute as some of the animals on the list.  But,  I think they are adorable  –  Just my opinion, of course!  

I also love the way they curl up into a ball when asleep or threatened.  In fact,  their name, pangolin,  comes from the Malay word, pen gguling,  meaning “something that rolls up”.

Their bodies are covered in scales;  only the underside,  face and throat are left exposed. Once a means of protection,  these scales are now causing the rapid decline in numbers of this amazing animal.

Another great feature is their prehensile tails which they can wrap around branches and hang upside-down with,  like monkeys.  They have thin,  sticky tongues,  longer than their bodies,  which they use to gouge out termites.  In fact,  these wonderful animals are highly adapted to their environment.

On the down side,  they are slow movers,  short-sighted,  hard of hearing,  have small heads and narrow mouths.  And,  to cap it all,  they have no teeth.  But,  they do have a great sense of smell.  In the absence of teeth,  the food is ground up in their stomachs with the help of the grit,  sand and tiny stones the pangolin eats.   Because of the very long claws on their front feet, they are often seen walking upright.   They can even swim and climb trees.  Aren’t they phenomenal!

Habitat
Subtropical, tropical, deciduous, evergreen and bamboo forests; grasslands and agricultural land.
Where
Provinces of China south of the Yangtze river, Taiwan, Hong Kong, northern India, Vietnam, Nepal, Bangladesh and the Lao PDR.
What they eat
Ants and termites
Threats
The major threat to these animals is human consumption.  The facts are truly shocking.  They are being hunted and killed  in astonishing numbers.  Somewhere between 90 and 180 thousand have been slaughtered for the Chinese market in the past four years.   Pangolin meat is considered a delicacy in most parts of China  –  unbelievably,  even the foetus is consumed.  The scales,  which are made of keratin,  are sold for medicinal purposes.  The supposed cures they bring about beggar belief (cancer, weight loss and enhanced lactation in breast-feeding, are just a few).  Large cats,  such as tigers and leopards,  have also been known to prey upon them,  but,  somehow,  this seems to pale into insignificance compared to the devastation being wreaked upon the species by humans.
Status: Endangered

The Chinese Pangolin  (Manis pentadactyla)  is being eaten into extinction.  These incredible creatures now need all the help they can get from us  (ironic considering we are their greatest predator!).  The species has now been listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as Endangered.  In 2012 the IUCN created the Pangolin Specialist Group to  “collaborate researchers and conservationists in developing techniques of conserving pangolin and directly combating the illegal trade”.  This seems to be the only way forward.

“We should remember in our dealings with animals that they are a sacred trust to us…they cannot speak for themselves.”
Harriet Beecher Stowe

Fast Fact Attack: Endangered Species 14 – The Amur Leopard


Amur leopard 3

Taken by photographer Ben Williams, naturalencounters.co.uk

Description
The nocturnal and solitary Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is one of the most beautiful creatures on the planet – well…perhaps that’s just my opinion – but this magnificent, ecologically important predator has been on the IUCN Red List as critically endangered since 1996. Shockingly, there are only 35 Amur leopards left in the wild.
They are fast and very nimble. They can reach speeds of up to 37 miles per hour and leap more than 19 feet horizontally and 10 feet vertically. And, not ones to share, they are very deft at hiding their prey up in the tress, away from other predators.
They breed in spring and early summer and produce litters of up to four cubs which are weaned at three months. They stay with their mothers until they are approaching two years of age.

Habitat
Temperate forests
Where
20-25 remain in  Russian and 7-12 in China
What they eat
Deer, wild boar, badger, raccoon dogs and hare.
Threats
Desultory logging, land conversion , forest fires and poaching. 
Status: Critically endangered
If these forest areas can be protected from unsustainable logging, rampant forest fires can be controlled and poaching brought under control, there is a chance the Amur leopard could be saved from extinction.

“Each species on our planet plays a role in the healthy functioning of natural ecosystems, on which humans depend”   William H. Schlesinger