Fast Fact Attack: Endangered Species No. 75 – The Malayan Tapir


Malayan tapir in captivity

“The more clearly we can focus our attention on the wonders and realities of the universe, the less taste we shall have for destruction”
Rachel Carson

Looking remarkably like a cross between a rhinoceros (to which it is related) and a huge prize boar wearing a saddle blanket, the Malayan tapir is yet another species suffering from habitat devastation. Once again, we bear witness to the terrible destruction caused by palm oil plantations.

These solitary, timid creatures are one of four species of tapir.  The others can be found Central and South America. The Malayan tapir, as the name would suggest, is native to Asia.

Malayan tapirs are surprisingly large, weighing up to seven hundred pounds; roughly as much as a Shetland pony.  But, far from being pony-like in its length, it can grow to as much as eight feet from head to tail.  Of all the tapirs, the Malayan tapir is the largest by far. Oddly, females are usually larger than males.

Tapirs are close relatives of (surprisingly) horses and (not so surprisingly) rhinos.  And, something you may not know, a group of tapirs is called a “candle”.

Malayan tapirs have long, flexible, prehensile trunks used extensively for grabbing leaves and plucking tasty fruit.  But, this proboscis also has another important role; that of a snorkel, used when the tapir goes swimming and diving for food and cover.

Malayan tapir - forestry commission IndonesiaIts sparse coat is a deep-dark-grey to black with a white ‘saddle’ running from the centre of its back to its tail, and white ears trims.  The coat is made up of very coarse hair which covers extremely tough skin. The tough skin comes in handy for protection against the claws and jaws of predators, and for withstanding the rigours of crashing through thick understorey vegetation when on the run.  It also has a very short stubby tail, small piggy-eyes and large ears. There are four toes on each fore foot and three toes on the hind ones.

It is said the disrupted colouration of the coat acts as camouflage, and predators most likely will mistake it for a large boulder when the animal is prone. This sounds a bit optimistic to me, but… let’s hope so!

Because tapirs are nocturnal and crepuscular (most active at dawn and dusk), the short-sightedness of the species is a bit of a drawback, especially when searching for food or avoiding predators. However, this is well-compensated for by the acute sense of smell they possess and the excellent hearing they enjoy.

Malayan tapirs are superb swimmers too, and will, by preference,  live near water, where they will spend the majority of their time. They feed from the bottom of the rivers on aquatic plants, and are able to submerge themselves for several minutes before using their ‘snorkels’.  Water also helps to cool them down and remove parasites, and allows refuge from predators.

But, don’t be fooled into thinking these gentle-looking creatures cannot and will not attack if necessary.  When threatened, they will charge using their very dangerous teeth to defend themselves.  Deaths of humans have been recorded in both the wild and in captivity.  Well… I suppose at least one species is getting its own back!

Malayan tapir and babyThe breeding season for tapirs typically occurs between April and June.  A gestation period of up to three hundred and ninety-five days follows. After which, one single calf will be born weighing about fifteen pounds.  Looking nothing like the mother in colour, the baby will have brown hair, white spots and white stripes.  This colouring allows it to blend in with the variegated forest vegetation.  Between the ages of four and seven months, the, now juvenile’s, coat will turn to the colours of an adult tapir.  The young one will be weaned at six to eight months.  By this time it will be almost fully grown.  The mother will only produce a calf once every two years.

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Habitat
Primary and secondary tropical moist forests and lower montane forests.
Where
Sumatra, Myanmar and Thailand.
What they eat
Young leaves, growing twigs and aquatic plants. And, seasonal fruits. They enjoy palm tree fruits as well as mango and fig. They also put a great deal of effort into finding salt licks.
Threats
Human activity: habitat conversion to palm oil plantations. illegal logging, deforestation for agricultural and flooding caused by dammed rivers for hydroelectric projects. Hunters seek out Malayan tapirs for food and sport.  Young tapirs are also trafficked.  Baby and adolescent tapirs can be worth as much as six thousand dollars on the black market. Some are known to have been traded through Indonesian zoos and some have gone to private collectors.  Natural predators are the leopard and the tiger.
Status: Endangered
The Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus) is listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as Endangered.  It is also protected under Cites Appendix 1.  Remaining numbers are thought to be as few as fifteen hundred to two thousand and decreasing.
The species is protected against hunting in all locations, and, because of their pig-like appearance, tapir meat is taboo in Sumatra anyway, where most of the population is Muslim.  Sadly, nothing is being done to protect its habitat.  The Malayan tapir is, regrettably in the same position as all other tapirs – in danger of extinction.  But, there is an upside;  there are a number of tapirs in zoos around the world and captive breeding seems to be working.

Other names: Asian tapir, badak (Malaysia and Indonesia), som-set (Thailand).

Related Articles
Nicaragua Hopes to Save Tapirs from Extinctions
Tapirs losing habitat and they’re still hunted!
Minnesota Zoo’s ‘Star’ Tapir Calf Named After Public Contest

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26 thoughts on “Fast Fact Attack: Endangered Species No. 75 – The Malayan Tapir

  1. Pingback: New South American tapir species discovery | Dear Kitty. Some blog

  2. I loved this post – learning about such a fascinating creature. I was so surprised at how different their babies are, with all their spots and stripes! Nature really is a ‘wonder’.

  3. So many souls on the brink! If I could give birth to little speckled baby tapirs, I would have many, many children! 🙂

  4. Love the quote by Rachel Carson. Wouldn’t it be lovely if we could find more ways to focus attention on the wonders of the world and lessen the taste for destruction! I know I’ve lead a fairly sheltered life, but I really don’t know how one can’t help but see the whole of Creation as wondrous. But it may be something that has to be taught, and the earlier the better. What you are doing with your posts to make more people aware is really a very noble endeavor, Amelia. Blessings, Natalie 🙂

    • Thank you for your lovely comment, Natalie. I think these things do need to be taught. Not only to the very young, but also to the ones who have already been taught to hate and abuse. And then, there are those who take things for granted and those who are inherently apathetic. Appreciation of our surroundings and fellow man and beasts comes more naturally to some than to others. People who behave badly like this have been taught to hate, taught to abuse, taught to help themselves regardless of the consequences and taught to look the other way. Often, they are bigots, racists, and abusers of women and children. So why not abuse animals as well! Why not harm them and take what is theirs, like the school bully taking some poor child’s lunch money. Some of these ‘fellow men’ of ours have no idea how to value the wonders of anything. If you don’t value something – inevitably, destruction will follow. This is just my humble opinion!

      On the domestic front, a little London boy, caught kicking a cow at a petting zoo, said he could not see the point of having cows around. They were worthless – Just animals – Why bother with them – No use to anyone – Get rid of the lot. Apart from his unacceptable attitude (no doubt taught to him by his equally soulless parents) and abusive behaviour (he definitely needed a few lessons in something there!), his daily schooling seemed to be lacking somewhat as well. It turned out, he thought milk was manufactured by supermarkets! He also thought peas came from a factory near London. And, we are supposed to be a caring and educated nation. The mind boggles! ~ Amelia 🙂

  5. They are beautiful, Amelia. We see yet another victim to the palm oil industry. We also have tapires in Argentina, the brown New World ones –their babies adorably mottled, too. Endangered, as well.

    • I read about those, Carmen.They are a bit smaller I think. I suppose the babies are the same for the same reasons. Trouble is, the camouflage is no good against their major predator – man and his palm oil. It is such a shame. These lovely creatures are so important to the tropical ecosystems. I also think they are very endearing, and those babies are terribly sweet 🙂
      .
      You might like this link, Carmen. I wish I had found it before, I would have put it on the post.
      http://www.tapirs.org/tapirs/tapir-faq.html 🙂

      • That is a fantastic organisation and their website is a pool of resources. I liked this very much, thank you, Amelia. Have you seen the wonderful artwork under Downloads?.

        You made me read further and now I know that the Tapir is more closely related to the horse and the rhino than to the swine family. Tapirs are odd-toed ungulates as opposed to the very similar-looking Peccary, who is even-toed. But I have a encountered a Peccary family with babies in the wild and they are adorably speckled all over, as well 🙂

  6. Pingback: Antique Chinese bronze tapir for sale | Dear Kitty. Some blog

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